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露地蔬菜种植全程机械化由京及冀

2018-06-18 11:51:43来源: 北京日报
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以收获为节点为起点,倒推全程蔬菜种植,目前,北京市实现了对露地甘蓝从清理上茬土地、深耕平整、播种育苗及移栽,到水肥植保、收获及本茬清洁共7个环节26个节点的全程机械化种植。未来,对露地甘蓝的机械化,可推广至白菜、马铃薯、番茄、胡萝卜等8大蔬菜品种,京津冀三地露地蔬菜种植有望全程实现机械化。

甘蓝,青绿色,叶片生长层层包裹成球体,又名“包菜”“卷心菜”等,是人们餐桌上的一道美食。4月28日上午,延庆区广积屯村的100亩土地,成了拥有“激光平地”“撒配方肥”“深松旋耕”“播种移栽”“指针喷灌”“中耕除草”“喷杆喷雾”“收获”等各种功能的农业机械的大秀场,而前来观看这场“农机秀”的,不仅有农业部农机部门的相关负责人,更有京津冀农业及农机部门的相关负责人,以及三地各蔬菜园区人员。

“我这个叫精播机,正在播的是娃娃菜种子。”示范园东侧地头,一名工作人员正在操作一小型播种机,透明的种子盒内,装着已有蓝色包衣的娃娃菜种子。随着精播机的前行,一粒粒种子播在平整的田垄上。据操作人员介绍,这部精播机可一次完成开沟、播种、覆土等工序,可直播也可穴播,可一穴播一粒,也可一穴播多粒,可从一行起播到可一次播10行,株距也可从2.5厘米到51厘米,“每小时可播3亩地,大的可播玉米、大豆等种子,小的可播芝麻、苋菜等,只需要设置好数据就可以了。”

示范园中部,最引人注目的是一辆正在栽植甘蓝的链式移栽机,其车头像拖拉机,车后载4个座椅,座椅上4名工人,正手脚麻利地将一棵棵甘蓝从托盘上取下,放进栽植筒中,随着链条转动,一棵棵甘蓝顺势插入田垄。随着移栽机流畅前行,已种植好的4行甘蓝苗向远方延伸,没有夹苗、伤苗。据操作人员介绍,这部链式移栽机一小时可栽苗3.5亩。

示范园西头南侧地块内,一辆大型深耕机在松土;北侧地块上已种好的甘蓝长势正旺,一架指针喷灌机正在喷洒浇水……

前来观摩的人员赞不绝口。北京市农机推广站副站长赵景文介绍,该块示范田原是块玉米地,由广积屯村30多户农民承包了10余年种玉米。流转到本市农业部门后,去年,本市在该块土地上进行了露地甘蓝生产全程机械化技术集成与示范,目的就是“机器换人”,探索并建立一整套从玉米茬田间清理,到耕地、播种、育苗及移栽,再到除草、植保及收获露地甘蓝的全程机械化解决方案。经过一年的试验示范,从播种一粒种子到收获一棵甘蓝全过程的7大环节26个技术节点,每个环节需要使用怎样的机械,又该设定怎样的技术指标,一套方案已经建立,且将来可直接向白菜、番茄、土豆等8类蔬菜品种拓展。“随着城市化进程加快,很多年轻人进入城市,农村土地无人种,将来若露地蔬菜种植全程实现了机械化,就可以代替人力。操作这些机械也需要一定技术,将来就是职业农民种地、专家种地。”赵景文风趣地说。经统计,这100亩甘蓝平均亩产4000公斤,相比传统人工可节约用工量75%以上。

河北省农机推广总站站长史家益带领全省11家地市农机站30余人现场观摩。史家益表示,北京方面有人才、资金、技术、政策等优势,而河北省菜田超过1000万亩,对丰富京津冀三地人民的菜篮子起着重要作用。他表示会将这套机械化方案复制到河北省,并从河北省各地市实际情况出发,更好地推行、实施露地蔬菜种植全程机械化。目前,河北省张家口地区已建立起一个占地150亩、全程实现机械化种植的蔬菜基地。(记者 张淑玲)

背景资料  

2014年5月,京津冀三地农科院共同签署《京津冀协同发展农业科技合作协议》,确立了生态环境保护与区域可持续发展、种植业科技创新、农业与农村信息化、都市农业等7大合作领域。

2015年5月,京津冀农业科技协同创新中心成立。

2016年8月,京津冀部分地区被划为同一适宜生态区。

2016年12月,京津冀农业科技协同创新首批成立3个三地联合实验室,分别为农产品质量安全、农业资源环境、果蔬有害生物绿色防控联合实验室。

2018-06-18,京津冀首次评审玉米品种,“NK815”成为唯一一个通过三地联审的夏播玉米品种。

2018-06-18,京津冀联合启动畜禽养殖废弃物再利用科技行动。

[作者:张淑玲 责任编辑:赵博]
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