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保护耕地质量也要划红线

2018-06-19 03:15   来源:中国经济网-《经济日报》   
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  耕地红线不仅是数量上的,也是质量上的。要像保护大熊猫一样保护耕地,既要守住18.65亿亩耕地数量红线,又要守好良田沃土的耕地质量底线。而且,守住耕地质量红线没有讨价还价的余地。具体来说,今后应从监测建设、用途管制、补偿机制三方面发力耕地质量保护

  农业部耕地质量保护中心近日在北京成立,标志着我国耕地质量保护工作进入新阶段。成立全国性的耕地质量保护中心,统筹各地开展耕地质量建设,让超负荷的耕地“歇一歇”,将为农业长远发展创造条件,为子孙留下一片沃土。这既是向保护耕地迈出的关键一步,更是构建新型人地关系的重要一步。

  耕地保护并非易事。我国正处于工业化、城镇化快速推进阶段,各地对建设用地的需求很大。然而,一些地方却把耕地当成建设用地的“唐僧肉”,没有履行好保护耕地的责任,对耕地占补平衡敷衍塞责。他们靠百般腾挪的建设用地指标大搞新区开发、园区建设,扮靓政绩后却留下难消的后患。

  同时,农业耕作的过程也会带来耕地质量退化。近些年,农业资源超强度开发,“四海无闲田”,导致耕地退化比重较大,土壤养分失衡、污染加剧、生态调节功能减弱、基础地力后劲不足。尤其是东北黑土地退化、西北地区土壤次生盐渍化、南方一些地方土壤重金属污染,耕地已经对人们亮起了“红灯”。

  事实上,加强耕地质量管理,是法律法规的明确规定。总体看,多年来各地依法开展耕地质量保护工作取得了积极成效。但制度不完善、机制不健全、职能不到位、项目有交叉等问题依然较为突出,由此导致耕地后备资源不断减少,实现耕地占补平衡、占优补优的难度日趋加大,耕地保护面临多重压力。

  万物土中生,耕地是我国最为宝贵的资源,关系十几亿人的吃饭大事,绝不能有任何闪失。耕地红线不仅是数量上的,也是质量上的。只有扎紧耕地保护的篱笆,才能筑牢国家粮食安全的基石。要像保护大熊猫一样保护耕地,既要守住18.65亿亩耕地数量红线,又要守好良田沃土的耕地质量底线。质量比数量更为隐蔽和无形,但在守住耕地质量红线方面,同样没有讨价还价的余地。为此,今后应从监测建设、用途管制、补偿机制三方面发力耕地质量保护。

  加快耕地质量监测建设是耕地保护的前提。目前,全国耕地质量监测点仅有357个,代表性还不够,监测内容还不完善。要结合科学规划、加密布点,构建起覆盖粮食主产区和主要农产品功能区的调查监测网络,夯实调查监测与评价工作的基础。特别要重点监测东北黑土地退化区、华北地下水超采区、南方重金属污染区,准确掌握耕地质量现状。

  坚持土地用途管制是耕地保护的底线。同一块地,种粮食的收益远比不过“种”房子的。因此,一方面,农地农用没有商量余地,不能因为比较效益低而放弃,违法必须受到严惩,要通过法律而不是土地所有者或使用者意愿决定土地用途;另一方面,新型城镇化是以人为本的城镇化。保障新型城镇化用地需求,就要合理统筹生产、生活、生态等各类用地。严格控制新增建设用地规模,并与农业转移人口落户数量挂钩,以人定地、地随人走。

  健全耕地保护补偿机制是耕地保护的手段。一方面,要加强对耕地保护责任主体的补偿激励。推进各级涉农资金整合,按照谁保护、谁受益的原则,对承担耕地保护任务的村集体和农户给予奖补,并与落实情况挂钩;另一方面,要实行跨地区补充耕地的利益调节。支持占用耕地地区通过支付调剂费用、产业转移等方式,对口扶持补充耕地地区,从而调动其保护耕地的积极性。(作者:乔金亮 来源:经济日报)

(责任编辑:符仲明)

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